“Untold Distress” – How Did the COVID-19 Pandemic Affect Those Who Had Previously Experienced an Epilepsy-Related Bereavement?

Abstract found on PubMed

Purpose: This study explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on people with lived experience of sudden bereavement as a consequence of an epilepsy-related death.

Method: We developed an online survey with fixed-choice and open-ended response formats to collect data on grief symptoms and well-being during the pandemic. A total of 275 people bereaved by epilepsy-related deaths between 1980-2020 participated in this study: with 79 participants providing free-text responses for inductive thematic analysis.

Results: In total, 84% of participants reported a bereavement following a sudden death of a person aged under 40, with 22% aged 19 and under. The majority (77% of participants) reported they had been thinking more about the person who died compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak and 54% had experienced more distressing flashbacks to the time of death. Additionally, 61% reported more difficulties falling asleep and staying asleep and 88% of participants reported that the outbreak and response measures had negatively impacted upon their mental health. Medication was being taken for a diagnosed mental health condition by 33% of participants at the time of the study. We categorized these negative experiences during COVID in to four main themes – ‘Family’, ‘Lifestyle’, ‘Personal Well-being’ and ‘Health Services and Shielding Populations’. The ‘Personal Well-being’ theme was inextricably linked to grief symptoms including ‘reflection on the death’, ‘re-exposure to feeling’, ‘grief’, ‘salience of sudden deaths in the media’ and ‘inability to commemorate anniversaries and rituals’. These findings were consistent for bereaved people irrespective of the recency of the death.

Conclusion: This study highlights the impact of the disruption caused by the pandemic on the grief management of those bereaved by epilepsy-related death. Grief is not static and its management is connected to the psychosocial and formal support structures that were disrupted during the pandemic. The removal of these supports had an adverse effect upon the mental health and well-being of many bereaved. There is an urgent need for a system-wide transformation of epilepsy and mental health services to be inclusive of the needs and experiences of people impacted by sudden deaths in epilepsy and the contribution of the specialist service developed by families and clinicians to meet this gap.

Epilepsy Research News: January 2023

This issue of Epilepsy Research News includes summaries of articles on:


Genetic Testing for Epilepsy Improves Patient Outcomes

Genetic testing in patients with epilepsy can inform treatment and lead to better outcomes in many cases, according to a new study. The study, led and funded by the genetic testing company Invitae, included patients referred for genetic testing between 2016 and 2020 whose testing revealed a positive molecular diagnosis. The investigators asked the patient’s healthcare providers how the results of the genetic test impacted the patient’s treatment plan and outcomes. Of the 418 children and adults with epilepsy who were included in the study, nearly half saw changes in their treatment plans such as a change in medication or referral to a specialist, after genetic testing revealed new information about their condition. The study also found that of 167 patients with follow-up information available, treatment changes were associated with improved patient outcomes including a reduction or elimination of seizures. The authors concluded that results support the use of genetic testing to guide the clinical management of epilepsy to improve patient outcomes. Learn more about genetic testing for epilepsy here.

Learn More


New Tools to Map Seizures and Improve Epilepsy Treatment

A new “tool” – a statistical model – has been developed to help doctors find precisely where seizures originate in the brain to increase the possibility of treating that specific region. Localizing where seizures begin is usually a costly and time-consuming process that can often require days to weeks of invasive monitoring. In this study, researchers aimed to shorten the time it takes to locate the seizure onset zone by studying patients’ brains, both when they weren’t having seizures and when their brains were stimulated with quick electrical pulses, to quickly create maps predicting where seizures begin. In the 65 patients studied, the model predicted the location of the onset of seizures and the ultimate success of surgical intervention with 79% accuracy. The researchers noted that this tool might be used to help clinicians identify the area where seizures begin in a less time-consuming process.

Learn More


Gene Therapy for Epilepsy

A recently published study shows that a potential new treatment can prevent seizures in mice by clearing the accumulation of a protein in the brain known as the tau protein. Researchers at Macquarie University recently found that accumulation of tau protein can lead to neurons becoming hyperexcited. Hyperexcited neurons that fire continuously can result in seizures and cognitive decline. In the newly published study, the researchers developed a gene therapy that uses a brain enzyme known as p38y to prevent this accumulation. When treated with the new gene therapy, mice with uncontrolled epilepsy had a better chance of survival in addition to reduced seizure susceptibility. The researchers note that their next step is to conduct a more detailed study in the laboratory, in hopes of eventually preparing the treatment for a possible clinical trial.

Learn More


World Health Organization (WHO) Focuses on Improving the Lives of People with Epilepsy

A technical brief published by the World Health Organization (WHO) called Improving the Lives of People with Epilepsy sets out the actions required to deliver an integrated approach to epilepsy care and treatment with the goal of meeting the multifaceted needs of people with epilepsy. In summary, the brief highlights the importance of:


  • Integrated services across the life-course, particularly at the primary care level

  • Access to anti-seizure medicines

  • Resources and training for the health and social services workforce

  • Anti-stigma and discriminatory legislation and practices; promoting and respecting the human rights and full social inclusion of people with epilepsy, their families and caregivers.

Learn More


Memory Impairment in Those with Epilepsy

People with chronic epilepsy often experience impaired memory. Researchers have now found a mechanism using a mouse model of epilepsy that could explain this impairment. Porous channels called ion channels within the brain allow electrically charged particles (ions) to flow into neurons, allowing neurons to communicate with each other. However, the researchers found changes in sodium ion channels within neurons of the hippocampus – an area of the brain important in learning and memory – that could lead to changes in the activity of these neurons and affect their normal function. When the researchers administered substances to restore the normal function of these channels, the firing properties of the neurons normalized, and the animals were better able to remember places they had visited. The study provides insight into the processes involved in memory retrieval. In addition, it provides support for the idea that the development of new drugs may improve the memory of epilepsy patients.

Learn More

UK Epilepsy Prevalence and Incidence Update

Article published by Epilepsy Action

A new update on the number of new cases of epilepsy and the number of people with epilepsy in the UK has found differences between the nations.

The new UK study by Wigglesworth and colleagues aimed to provide an update on the incidence of epilepsy (the number of new cases) and the prevalence (the number of people with epilepsy) in the UK between 2013-2018.

The researchers used electronic health records of around 14 million people, representing around one fifth (20%) of the UK population.

The study found that overall in the UK, just over nine people would have epilepsy in every 1,000 people each year. This means that an estimated 633,000 people are living with epilepsy in the UK.

When looking individually at England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, the team found there were slight differences.

In England, this drops to just under nine people in every 1,000 having epilepsy a year. In Scotland, this was just over 10 people, in Wales it was over 11 people and in Northern Ireland it was over 12 people.

In Pediatric Epilepsy, Links Found Between Parental Factors, Emotional and Behavioral Issues

Article published by AJMC

Adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) commonly experience emotional and behavioral problems, which vary depending on demographic, clinical, and parental factors, according to a study published in Epilepsy & Behavior from the Korean Quality of Life in Epilepsy Study Group. The parental factors included how they perceived others treated their child.

Due to these findings, the study authors emphasized it is crucial to identify and properly manage these problems early to decrease comorbid psychopathology in AWE.

The cross-sectional multicenter study included 289 adolescents—180 boys and 109 girls—aged between 11 and 18 years, with a mean (SD) age of 15.4 (1.9) years.

The authors explained that psychopathology among this group was evaluated using the Youth Self-Report scale, consisting of 8 narrowband and 3 broadband syndrome scales, and the raw score and T-score of each syndrome scale was analyzed.

The study found 18.3% of AWE had at least 1 emotional or behavioral problem in the clinical range.

Social problems were most common (10.0%), followed by attention problems (6.9%) and aggressive behaviors (4.2%), and externalizing problems (11.8%) were twice as common as internalizing problems (6.2%).

Consistent with findings of prior studies, this study showed 1 in 4 parents of AWE said they perceived that other people felt uncomfortable with their child, treated their child as inferior, or preferred to avoid their child because of their epilepsy.

“Adolescents whose parents perceived stigma had higher levels of all types of emotional and behavioral problems, except for withdrawal and anxiety/depression than those whose parents perceived no stigma,” the authors explained further. “Specifically, these adolescents were more likely to have externalizing problems and social problems.”

CURE Epilepsy Update January 2023

Happy 2023 CURE Epilepsy Community,

On behalf of the entire team at CURE Epilepsy, I would like to thank you for your support and generosity throughout 2022. Your ongoing support makes our mission of funding breakthrough research to find a cure possible.

2023 marks an incredibly significant milestone for CURE Epilepsy. This year we are celebrating 25 years of inspiring hope and delivering impact for the epilepsy community. Twenty-five years ago Susan Axelrod and a small group of parents of children with epilepsy who were frustrated with their inability to protect their children from seizures and the side effects of medications joined forces to accelerate the search for a cure. From that frustration, CURE Epilepsy was born, and through their persistence and dedication, as well as the commitment of thousands of parents, caregivers, researchers, clinicians, people living with epilepsy and so many more along the way, we continue paving the path to advance science to find the cures for epilepsy.

During the past 25 years, we have raised over $90 million to achieve our mission and awarded more than 280 grants. We will not stop until we are all able to live in the world we envision. A world without epilepsy.

With commitment to inspire hope and deliver impact.

Warm Regards,

In this CURE Epilepsy Update, please find information on:

Champion Highlight: The Monast Family

In 2022, the Monast family from Eastern Pennsylvania, along with fellow CURE Epilepsy Champions, the Rosini family, organized the first annual Reagan’s Run. Reagan Monast, the inspiration for the race, was diagnosed with epilepsy nearly eight years ago before her second birthday. Reagan’s Run was a 5K or 1-mile run/walk to raise awareness and critical funds for epilepsy research in honor of Regan, family friend Dominic Rosini, and the 3.4 million other Americans living with epilepsy.

With the help of their friends and families, the Monasts and Rosinis raised nearly $30,000 to fund research to find a cure. You can become a Champion like the Monast and Rosini families by starting an awareness and fundraising event of your own to support CURE Epilepsy. If you need some ideas to get started or want additional information, you can contact CURE Epilepsy at events@CUREepilepsy.org. And stay tuned for more details about our 25th Anniversary CURE Epilepsy Champions Challenge.


Learn How to Become a CURE Epilepsy Champion

Our Newest Board Member…

Please join us in welcoming the newest addition to our Board of Directors, Justin Gover. Justin has over twenty-five years of experience in leadership positions in the biotechnology industry in the UK and the US, most recently as the CEO of GW Pharmaceuticals prior to its acquisition by Jazz Pharmaceuticals.




Learn More About All CURE Epilepsy Board Members

Start Your 2023 Off Right by Choosing to #SayEpilepsy

2022 may have come to an end, however, our Say the Word #SayEpilepsy campaign continues into 2023 as a way to help continue to raise epilepsy awareness. By saying and sharing Say the Word #SayEpilepsy, you can help make a difference in the lives of those within the epilepsy community who are in need of a cure.




Share Your Story

Child Life On Call Podcast with Guest Kelly Cervantes

On Wednesday, January 18th hear Kelly Cervantes share how her family sought to empower themselves in the face of their daughter Adelaide’s epilepsy, her work with CURE Epilepsy, and much more.




Listen Here on January 18

Save the Date for Purple Day

Mark your calendars now for Purple Day on Sunday, March 26! Purple Day is an annual, international grassroots effort to help build awareness for epilepsy around the globe. Join with the epilepsy community on this is a day of celebration, recognition, and awareness. You can also participate in the Purple Day Expo at Disney World on March 25th.



Learn More

What’s New from the Seizing Life® Podcast

Kids Ask Docs the Darndest Things About Epilepsy


Recorded live at Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland this past November, kids who have epilepsy or have family members with epilepsy ask pediatric neurologists their questions about the disorder.

Watch or Listen



Managing Epilepsy with the Stress of the Holidays


Dr. Eva Alden, a Neuropsychologist at the Mayo Clinic joins us to explain the connection between stress and seizures, and offers advice, insights, and recommendations for those with epilepsy and their caregivers to help cope with stress and seizure triggers during the holidays.

Watch or Listen


Watch these and all of our upcoming Seizing Life episodes here.


The CURE Epilepsy Store


Looking for some apparel or accessories to raise epilepsy awareness during 2023? Check out the CURE Epilepsy Store now!





Please mark your calendar for the following key dates in the epilepsy community:

  • January 1 – December 31, 2023 – CURE Epilepsy’s 25th Anniversary
  • February 13, 2023 – International Epilepsy Day
  • March 25 – Purple Day Expo at Disney World
  • March 26 – Purple Day
  • October 18 – SUDEP Action Day
  • October 30 – November 1 – Epilepsy Awareness Day at Disneyland
  • November – Epilepsy Awareness Month
  • December 1-7, 2023 – Infantile Spasms Awareness Week


1 in 26 individuals will be impacted by epilepsy in their lifetime.
Each person has their own story.

Read Leonardo’s Story


Psychiatric Co-Morbidity of Drug-Resistant Epilepsy in Veterans

Abstract found on PubMed 

Objective: Psychiatric conditions are frequently co-morbid in epilepsy and studies examining Veterans with epilepsy suggest this population may present with unique psychiatric and clinical features Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) may confer a greater risk of psychiatric dysfunction; however, there is a paucity of literature documenting this. To expand our clinical understanding of Veterans with DRE, we assessed a comprehensive Veterans Health Administration (VHA)-wide sample, describing psychiatric conditions, medications, and healthcare utilization.

Methods: Psychiatric and hospitalization data were collected on 52,579 Veterans enrolled in VHA healthcare between FY2014-2ndQtr. FY2020 from the VHA Corporate Data Warehouse administrative data. Data examined include psychiatric diagnosis, psychotropic medication use, and utilization of hospital services.

Results: At least one psychiatric diagnosis was present in 70.2% of patients, while 49.8% had two or more diagnoses. Depression (51.7%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (38.8%), and anxiety (38.0%) represented the most common psychiatric co-morbidities. Psychiatric medication use was present in 73.3%. Emergency room (ER) visits were highest in those with suicidality (mean 14.9 visits), followed by bipolar disorder (10.3), and schizophrenia (12.1). Psychiatric-related hospitalizations were highest for schizophrenia (mean 2.5 admissions) and bipolar disorder (2.3). Females had more psychiatric diagnoses (2.4 vs. 1.6, p < 0.001), psychiatric medications (3.4 vs. 2.3, p < 0.001), and ER utilization than males (6.9 vs. 5.5, p < 0.001).

Significance: A substantial psychiatric burden exists among Veterans with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Compared to prior epilepsy literature, results suggest that Veterans with DRE evidence more prevalent psychiatric comorbidity, emergency care usage, and inpatient psychiatric admissions. Females were especially impacted, with greater rates of psychiatric conditions and treatment. Considering the relationship of psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy with psychosocial functioning and quality of life, our findings highlight the need for screening and provision of services for those with DRE.

Attitudes Towards Persons with Epilepsy as Friends. Results of a Factorial Survey

Abstract found on PubMed

Objective: Discrimination against persons with epilepsy (PWE) may still persist. The aim of the study was to examine whether epilepsy is an obstacle to desired friendship.

Methods: A factorial survey (vignettes), which is less biased by social desirability, was applied to PWE, their relatives, and lay persons. The vignettes described a person who was varied by the dimensions of age (younger, same age, older), gender (male, female), disease (healthy, mild epilepsy, severe epilepsy [generalized tonic-clonic seizures], diabetes), origin (German, non-German), contact (phone/internet, activities at home, activities outside), frequency of contacts (weekly, monthly), and distance (around the corner, 10km away). Respondents rated their willingness to befriend with the person on a 10-point Likert scale. Multivariate regression determined the contribution of each dimension on the judgement.

Results: Participants were 64 PWE (age: 37.1±14.0 years), 64 relatives of PWE (age: 45.1±13.6 years), and 98 controls without contacts to PWE (age: 24.4±10.1 years). Controls were less interested in a friendship towards a PWE with mild epilepsy (-3.4%) and even more avoided PWE with severe epilepsy (-11.7%) while in PWE with tonic clonic seizures, a mild form of epilepsy was even conducive for friendship (+7.0%). Controls preferred females (+5.0%) and disliked younger people (-12.3%) and contacts via the internet or telephone (-7.3%). PWE were also less interested in younger people (-5.8%), and relatives of PWE had a lower preference in friendships with longer distance (-2.3%).

Significance: PWE still suffer from a risk of social avoidance and this becomes more evident with generalized motor seizures.

New WHO Brief Sets Out Actions Needed to Improve Lives of People with Epilepsy

Article published by World Health Organization

A new technical brief published today by the World Health Organization (WHO), Improving the Lives of People with Epilepsy, sets out the actions required to deliver an integrated approach to epilepsy care and treatment, which better meets the multifaceted needs of people with epilepsy.

Epilepsy affects over 50 million people across the world. It ranks fifth among all neurological causes for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Worldwide, an estimated 125 000 deaths each year are related to the disorder. Epilepsy also has wider physical and mental health implications. Roughly half of all people with epilepsy also have other physical or mental health conditions, which are associated with poorer health outcomes and increased health-care needs.

Across the world, people with epilepsy continue to be the targets of stigma, discrimination, and human rights violations. As a result, they frequently face barriers to education and employment and are effectively prevented from full participation in social and community life.

“Given epilepsy has significant personal, health, economic and social inclusion consequences for people living with the disorder and for their families and communities, the response should not be anything less than integrated, comprehensive and engaging all of society,” said Dévora Kestel, WHO Director for Mental Health and Substance Use.

CURE Epilepsy Update December 2022

Greetings Epilepsy Community,

December is always an amazing time for the advocates, clinicians, researchers and other partners working within the epilepsy community. We gather during the first week of December to attend the Partners Against Mortality in Epilepsy (PAME) and American Epilepsy Society (AES) meetings. We meet, share information, exchange ideas, brainstorm, and dream about a world without seizures.

It is also a highlight for the CURE Epilepsy team because we host a reception where we have the privilege of announcing our newest grantees to the community. It is an honor to fund these amazing investigators as they push science forward to find a cure for epilepsy. Throughout the years, our grantees have made remarkable contributions to the search for a cure, and we know that these most recent recipients do the same.

One of our past grantees, Dr. John Swann at the Baylor College of Medicine, has recently published on his research identifying a promising new treatment for the severe form of epilepsy known as infantile spasms (IS). IS is a rare and catastrophic form of epilepsy with standard treatments only working in approximately 50% of patients. I mention Dr. Swann’s research as yesterday was the final day of Infantile Spasms Awareness Week, which also takes place annually during the first week of December. You can read more about Dr. Swann’s work here and you can learn more about IS here.

As we turn the corner on 2022, please know how very grateful I am for your enduring support this year, including your incredible generosity on Giving Tuesday. You helped us kick off the giving season with over $75,000 in gifts. Your donations, especially now, enable us to continue to fund groundbreaking research such as Dr. Swann’s and our latest grantees. As you make your charitable gifts this month, we hope you will include CURE Epilepsy so we can continue to work towards giving the epilepsy community the greatest gift of all, a world without epilepsy.

Wishing you and your families a joyous holiday season and best wishes for the New Year!

Through research there is hope.

In this CURE Epilepsy Update, please find information on:

Give the Gift of Research This Season

On Giving Tuesday, our community came together to raise over $75,000 for research. As the season of giving continues, we ask that you make a gift to help us fund the critically needed research that will help lead us to a cure. This research gives hope to the 65 million people worldwide impacted by epilepsy including Captain Jack Somers, a United States Marine Corps Veteran, who has had epilepsy since 2010 after a combat-related injury but didn’t receive an “epilepsy” diagnosis until earlier this year.



Make a Gift

Free Webinar: Stem Cells & Epilepsy: A New Therapeutic Approach for Treating Drug-Resistant Epilepsy

Join us for this free webinar on Monday, December 19 from 2-3 pm CT. We will discuss a pioneering neural cell therapy approach that has the potential to lead to a novel treatment for drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Viewers will learn about the promising new data supporting this approach which will be presented by Dr. Robert Beach from the State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, and they will hear more about the clinical trial and the immediate impact of this regenerative cell therapy from both the first patient enrolled in this clinical trial and a family member.


Learn More or Register

Congratulations to the Newest CURE Epilepsy Grantees

CURE Epilepsy is honored to present our latest grantees. Our research grants are awarded for cutting-edge, novel research projects that seek to accelerate treatments, improve outcomes, and get us to cures so that we can live in a world free of seizures.





Learn More

A Day in the Life – A Glimpse into the Day to Day of Having a Medically Complex Child

Filmed in early 2019 when Adelaide was 3 years old, this short documentary, produced by CURE Epilepsy, shows a day in the life of one family living with epilepsy. Kelly and Miguel Cervantes’ daughter Adelaide was diagnosed at 7 months old with infantile spasms, a devastating and difficult-to-treat form of epilepsy.




ReSearching to CURE Epilepsy Fall 2022 Edition

Miss our latest edition of ReSearching to CURE Epilepsy? Check out our most recent report showcasing our recent research breakthroughs, community stories, and events that help raise the funds to support advancing research to find a cure. You can read about these stories and more here.




See the Impact, Read the Stories


What’s New from the Seizing Life® Podcast

The Impact of Epilepsy and Seizures on Cognition and Memory


In this podcast, we speak with Dr. Alice Lam about the potential impacts of seizures on cognition and memory, both the short-term and the long-term effects. Dr. Lam also discusses how these impacts may differ amongst children, adults, and aging adults.

Watch or Listen



A Mother Shares her Daughter’s Journey from Infantile Spasms to Brain Surgery


Emma first displayed signs of infantile spasms at 4 months old. With the help of a home video and some “Mama Bear” research, Emma was quickly diagnosed and aggressive treatment with vigabatrin was started.


Watch or Listen


Watch these and all of our upcoming Seizing Life episodes here.

Other Podcasts Featuring CURE Epilepsy

Want to learn even more about epilepsy from the experts? CURE Epilepsy and some of our friends were recently highlighted on the following podcasts.

CURE Epilepsy CEO Beth Dean along with community advocate and mom Nora Hennessy spoke with Dr. Joseph Sirven about epilepsy and living with epilepsy on NPR’s “What’s Health Got to Do with It” in an episode released November 19 titled “Curing epilepsy; Mary Seacole, the little-known founder of modern nursing”.

Board Chair and Seizing Life host, Kelly Cervantes, talked about what it’s like to be a miraculous mama on the Miraculous Mamas podcast available here.


Black Friday Sale in the CURE Epilepsy Store


Our Black Friday comes to a close this Saturday, December 10! Get 20% off your entire purchase and guaranteed delivery before the holidays to help spread epilepsy awareness.





Please mark your calendar for the following key dates in the epilepsy community:

  • January 1 – December 31, 2023 – CURE Epilepsy’s 25th Anniversary
  • February 13, 2023 – International Epilepsy Awareness Day
  • March 26, 2023 – Purple Day
  • October 18, 2023 – SUDEP Action Day
  • November – Epilepsy Awareness Month
  • December 1-7, 2023 – Infantile Spasms Awareness Week


1 in 26 individuals will be impacted by epilepsy in their lifetime.
Each person has their own story.

Read Keoni’s Story


Difficulties with Mathematics Experienced by Adults with Epilepsy in Daily Life: An Online Study

Abstract found on PubMed

Objective: Mathematics encompass a variety of skills, broadly grouped into basic numeracy to complex secondary mathematical skills. In children with epilepsy difficulties with mathematics are common and related to a multicomponent working memory capacity. Little is known about mathematical skills of adults with epilepsy in daily life. Hence, we aimed to compare basic and secondary mathematical skills of adults with epilepsy to controls, examine relations between mathematical skills and working memory, and explored relationships between mathematical skills and epilepsy variables (age of onset, seizure frequency, and anti-seizure medication).

Methods: Eighty-four people with epilepsy and 86 healthy controls completed questionnaires on their subjective experience of using mathematics and working memory skills in daily life: The Dyscalculia Checklist (DC) and Working Memory Questionnaire (WMQ; including attention, storage, and executive scales), respectively. Questionnaires also collected demographic and epilepsy variables.

Results: Adults with epilepsy reported greater difficulties in basic and secondary mathematical skills on the DC compared with controls. Only one epilepsy variable, a younger age of epilepsy onset, related to higher DC scores (greater mathematical difficulties), but was not significantly related in regression analyses. Instead, the WMQ explained 33% of the variance on the DC; the poorer storage and attention (but not executive) on the WMQ were associated with the higher DC score, when demographic and epilepsy variables were accounted for.

Significance: Adults with epilepsy reported significant difficulties with mathematics in daily life, which were not explained by epilepsy variables but by poor working memory. While our findings suggest that daily difficulties with mathematics may be comorbid with epilepsy rather than epilepsy related, it is important to be cognizant of mathematical difficulties experienced by patients with epilepsy as they have potential to impact understanding of numerical information provided in patient care, such as risks associated with different epilepsy treatments.