February 14, 2023

Perampanel (FYCOMPA®) as Precision Therapy in Rare Genetic Epilepsies

Abstract found on 

Objective: Perampanel, an antiseizure drug with AMPA-receptor antagonist properties, may have a targeted effect in genetic epilepsies with overwhelming glutamate receptor activation. Special interest holds epilepsies with loss of GABA inhibition (e.g. SCN1A), overactive excitatory neurons (e.g. SCN2ASCN8A ), and variants in glutamate receptors (e.g. GRIN2A). We aimed to collect data from a large rare genetic epilepsy cohort treated with perampanel, to detect possible subgroups with high efficacy.

Methods: A multicenter project based on the framework of NETRE (Network for Therapy in Rare Epilepsies), a web of pediatric neurologists treating rare epilepsies. Retrospective data from patients with genetic epilepsies treated with perampanel was collected. Outcome measures were responder rate (50% seizure reduction), and percentage of seizure reduction after 3 months of treatment. Subgroups of etiologies with high efficacy were identified.

Results: 137 patients, with 79 different etiologies, aged 2 months-61?years (mean 15.48±9.9) were enrolled. The mean dosage was 6.45±2.47 mg, and treatment period was 2.0±1.78?years (1.5 months-8?years). 62 patients (44.9%) were treated for >2?years. 98 patients (71%) were responders, and 93 (67.4%) chose to continue therapy. The mean reduction in seizure frequency was 56.61±34.36%. 60 patients (43.5%) sustained over 75% reduction in seizure frequency, including 38 (27.5%) with >?90% reduction in seizure frequency. The following genes showed high treatment efficacy: SCN1A, GNAO1, PIGA, PCDH19, SYNGAP1, POLG1, POLG2, NEU1. 11/17 (64.7%) of patients with SCN1A, 35.3% of which had over 90% seizure reduction. Other etiologies remarkable for over 90% reduction in seizures were GNAO1 and PIGA. 14 patients had a CSWS EEG pattern and in 6 subjects perampanel reduced epileptiform activity.

Significance: Perampanel demonstrated high safety and efficacy in patients with rare genetic epilepsies, especially in SCN1A, GNAO1, PIGA, PCDH19, SYNGAP1, CDKL5, NEU1 and POLG, suggesting a targeted effect related to glutamate transmission.