March 2, 2022

Interictal Pattern on Scalp Electroencephalogram Predicts Excellent Surgical Outcome of Epilepsy Caused by Focal Cortical Dysplasia

Abstract found in Wiley Online Library

Objective: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) represents an essential cause of drug-resistant epilepsy with surgery as an effective treatment option. This study aimed to identify the important predictors of favorable surgical outcomes and the impact of the interictal scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns in predicting postsurgical seizure outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 210 consecutive patients between 2015 and 2019. They were diagnosed with FCD by pathology, underwent resection, and had at least one year of postsurgical follow-up. Predictors of seizure freedom were analyzed.

Results: Based on the information at the latest follow-up, seizure outcome was classified as Engel Class I (seizure-free) in 81.4% and Engel Class II-IV (non-seizure-free) in 18.6% of patients. There were 43, 105, and 62 cases of FCD type I, type II, and type III, respectively. The interictal EEG showed a repetitive discharge pattern (REDP) in 87 (41.4%) patients, polyspike discharge pattern (PDP) in 41 (19.5%), and the coexistence of REDP and PDP in the same location in 32 (15.2%) patients. The analyzed patterns in order of frequency were repetitive discharges lasting 5 seconds or more (32.4%); polyspikes (16.7%); RED type 1 (11.4%); continuous epileptiform discharges occupying >80% of the recording (11.4%); RED type 2 (6.2%); brushes (3.3%); focal, fast, continuous spikes (2.4%); focal fast rhythmic epileptiform discharges (1.43%); and frequent rhythmic bursting epileptiform activity (1.4%). The coexistence of REDP and PDP in the same location on scalp EEG and complete resection of the assumed epileptogenic zone (EZ) was independently associated with favorable postsurgical prognosis.

Significance: Resective epilepsy surgery for intractable epilepsy caused by FCD has favorable outcomes. Interictal scalp EEG patterns were revealed to be predictive of excellent surgical outcomes and may help clinical decision-making and enable better presurgical evaluation.