September 19, 2022

Incidence and Risk Factors of Posttraumatic Epilepsy Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abstract found on Wiley Online Library

Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a well-known chronic complication following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Despite some evidence that age at the time of injury may influence the likelihood of PTE, the incidence of PTE in pediatric populations remains unclear. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review to determine the overall reported incidence of PTE, and explore potential risk factors associated with PTE after pediatric TBI. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases was conducted, including randomized controlled trials and cohort studies assessing the incidence of PTE in TBI pediatric patients. We excluded studies with a sample size of <10 patients and those in which a pediatric cohort was not clearly discernable. The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. We found that the overall incidence of PTE following pediatric TBI was 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.9%–15%). Subgroup analysis of a small number of studies demonstrated that the occurrence of early seizures (cumulative incidence ratio [CIR] = 7.28, 95% CI = 1.09–48.4, p =?.040), severe TBI (CIR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.23–2.67, p <?.001), and intracranial hemorrhage (CIR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.06–2.40, p =?.024) increased the risk of PTE in this population. Other factors, including male sex and neurosurgical intervention, were nonsignificantly associated with a higher incidence of PTE. In conclusion, PTE is a significant chronic complication following childhood TBI, similar to in the adult population. Further standardized investigation into clinical risk factors and management guidelines is warranted.