April 26, 2023

Ezogabine (Trobalt®) Impacts Seizures and Development in Patients with KCNQ2 Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy

Abstract found on Wiley Online Library

Genetic variants in KCNQ2 are associated with a range of epilepsies, from self-limited (familial) neonatal-infantile epilepsy to developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). We retrospectively reviewed clinical data from eight patients with KCNQ2-related DEE who were treated with ezogabine. Treatment was initiated at a median age of 8 months (range 7 weeks to 2.5 years) and continued for a median of 2.6 years (range 7 months to 4.5 years). Five individuals had daily seizures at baseline and experienced at least 50% seizure reduction with treatment, sustained in four. One individual with two to four yearly seizures improved to rare events. Two individuals were seizure-free; treatment targeted cognition and development. Developmental improvements were reported in all eight patients. Weaning of ezogabine was associated with increased seizure frequency (N=4), agitation and irritability (N=2), poor sleep (N=1), and developmental regression (N=2). These data suggest that treatment with ezogabine is effective at reducing seizure burden and is associated with improved development. Minimal side effects were observed. Weaning was associated with increased seizures and behavioral disturbances in a subset. An approach targeting potassium channel dysfunction with ezogabine is warranted in patients with KCNQ2-related DEE.